Solar Eclipse Safety 2022-06-22T10:42:50-05:00


by Paul D. Maley

Cayenne, French Guiana in 2006 eclipse viewing safety

A safety poster spotted in Cayenne, French Guiana in 2006 during our sunrise annular eclipse expedition there.

Eye safety is RING OF FIRE EXPEDITIONS’ main priority at any observational event involving the Sun. For decades I have provided safety information to participants on all of our past expeditions and in various countries appearing on TV and giving interviews to the local press prior to and after our solar eclipse expeditions.  This has been a critical part of the international outreach of the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society.

NASA eclipse viewing safety

Paul D. Maley and Teacher-in-Space astronaut Barbara Morgan providing a NASA PAO briefing just 2 weeks prior to the ill fated STS 51L Challenger mission in 1986.  Paul briefed several members of the crew on proper ways to observe Halley’s Comet. NASA photo.

annular solar eclipse, eclipse viewing safety

Paul D. Maley provides a guest briefing in a hotel prior to an annular solar eclipse

While it is difficult to look/stare at the full sun, the eye has no evolutionary mechanism to pull away from viewing a deep partial phase, where the sunlight is considerably weaker yet still very dangerous!

Proper eclipse observing protocols are important to provide to people in general who are not familiar with astronomy or observation of the Sun at any time. Education is a critical element and it is incumbent on eclipse organizers to bring that knowledge and disseminate it early to avoid problems including eye injury.

solar eclipse viewing safety

Misinformation example as recently as 2012 provided by Australian media. Courtesy Cairns Post.

Even in modern times there are people in authority who will provide misinformation based on ignorance or who have political agendas. The above photo is an example of an opthamologist in Australia prior to the November 2012 Total Solar Eclipse in Cairns.   This person is advising local people not to look at the Sun during totality and during the partial phases of the eclipse even with approved eclipse viewing glasses. However, this warning is mis-informed and incorrect. There can be no excuse for an irresponsible recommendation like this.

eclipse viewing safety, solar eclipse of 2001

Paul D. Maley outside the TV studios in Lusaka, Zambia prior to providing a presentation to Zambian viewers on how to safely observe the solar eclipse of 2001. Lynn Palmer photo.

Libreville, Gabon 1986 "how to safely watch the eclipse"

Paul D. Maley being interviewed in Libreville, Gabon in 1986 on how to safely watch the eclipse. The interview was in French and being translated by Jacques and Huguette Guertin.

Your eyes are precious commodities and must not only be protected from the blinding brightness of sunlight in the visual spectrum but also that from the ultraviolet and infrared.  Although watching a solar eclipse or planetary transit across the Sun can be an amazing experience, you must exercise great caution to avoid retinal damage as a result or improper observation techniques.  Because the eyes have no pain receptors, prolonged staring at the sun could easily result in retinal damage.

Prolonged staring (or even relatively short looking) at the sun is dangerous because the eye concentrates sunlight just like a magnifying glass does with subsequent, strong, heating focused to a point.

In addition, guidance on the type of ‘safe’ solar filter devices may vary internationally due to political, technical and/or social factors related to the country.  The following information is based on decades of observational experience by RING OF FIRE EXPEDITIONS.

three different safe viewing methods, solar eclipse viewing safety

Observers on Hikueru observing the solar eclipse. Photo by Allan Dyer.

In the above image three different safe methods are shown. Left: telescope with solar filter mounted in front of the lens; center: observer uses a #14 welder’s glass; right: observer uses binoculars with mylar filters in front of the lenses.

While we concentrate on solar observing during eclipses, there is also similar concern when attempting to see the ‘green flash’ at sunset or sunrise (or other times) since you must ‘see’ the Sun to be sure it is in your field of view for photography. For videography and even photography, the situation is made safer in that if your camera/camcorder is securely pointed and mounted, you can use the screen to keep the camera pointed and focused, thus avoiding the need to visually look through a set of optics.

1. SAFE METHODS for observing the Sun

Observing the Sun can be inherently dangerous but there are ways that eclipse observation can be accomplished safely and without risk.

THE ONLY TIME WHEN YOU CAN SAFELY LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN WITHOUT ANY FILTER PROTECTION IS DURING THE BRIEF PERIOD OF A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE WHEN ALL OF THE SUN’S LIGHT IS BLOCKED.  If you are unsure when this will occur, stay close to our tour escort who will signal when it is safe.  This ‘free pass’ DOES NOT APPLY for an annular eclipse, partial eclipse, transit of Mercury or Venus across the sun or daily observation of the Sun when none of these phenomena are scheduled.

As a general precaution, never leave any of the following devices unsupervised especially when there are children about. This can be especially true in foreign countries where communication with locals can be problematic.

a. The first and simplest is through the use of pinhole projection, where a hole is poked into one end of a shoebox (or piece of white paper or cardboard) and the sun’s image is projected onto the other side (or onto the ground on another piece of white paper).   It may leave you dissatisfied since the solar image is small; if you align the shoe box so that the sun enters the hole on one side, it is projected on the other with some degree of clarity.  In the photo below you can see the very small image created by pinhole projection.

pinhole projection, solar eclipse viewing safety

An example of pinhole projection. Photo by Betsy Vobach at the total solar eclipse in Libya 2006. The pinholes project a very small solar image.

b. If you have a telescope or binoculars, either one of these (using great caution to prevent eye injury), you can also project the sun onto a screen or piece of white paper (or screen or white surface) and move it back and forth to adjust the size of the Sun’s image.  Any such device should never be left unmonitored and it is advisable to cap both ends when the device is not being used for any period of time.  When using binoculars there are two parallel sets of optics involved. It is best to cover one set and use the other for the Sun projection.

binocular projection, solar eclipse viewing safety

Cap one eyepiece of a binocular and allow light to pass through the other; however it is best not to hold this pose for too long. Lynn Palmer photo 1999.

The following diagram shows a rather complex setting in which a refracting telescope is used to safely project the image of the Sun.

refracting telescope projection, solar eclipse viewing safety

A graphic showing an overall scheme for projecting the Sun onto a white surface.

The Sun should not be projected through this method for any longer than 30 to 60 seconds or so to avoid the ocular [that is, eyepiece(s)] from experiencing severe heating; also you should take care that nobody pick up the telescope or binoculars and look directly at the Sun with them, since they have no sun filter protection.

Celestron 8 projection, solar eclipse viewing safety

Chuck Herold projects the Sun through a Celestron 8 onto a transparent screen at our 1984 total solar eclipse expedition to Kwikila, Papua New Guinea. This rather complicated setup resulted in a large scale projected image which was quite difficult to keep in place.

c. Less complicated perhaps is the use of ‘eclipse glasses’ or ‘eclipse shades’ as they are sometimes called. These are inexpensive cardboard rimmed ‘glasses’ that contain mylar inserts that block the harmful radiation from the Sun when you slip them on. They are NOT sunglasses and the use of sunglasses to look at the Sun should never be attempted as they provide no protection from direct radiation.  Before using them or giving them away, be sure to inspect your pair of eclipse glasses to be sure they do not have cuts or pinholes through which light can pass!

In an emergency, you can safely use eclipse glasses on the front of optics.  Just be sure that the glasses are securely attached and won’t fall off.


Eclipse viewing glasses, solar eclipse viewing safety

An example of the paper and mylar “solar eclipse glasses” that are popularly sold. These are very inexpensive compared to professional grade ND5 solar filters.

eclipse viewing glasses, solar eclipse viewing safety

d. A number 14 welder’s glass is also safe to use.  It usually produces a greenish image and provides no magnification, but you can follow the progress of a partial eclipse.  It is generally not useful for photography.

number 14 welder's glass, solar eclipse viewing safety

Number 14 welders glass is small, light weight and easy to carry to an international destination.

e. Viewing with or photographing through a telescope or telephoto camera lens is another safe method;  Neutral Density  #5 (abbreviated as ND5) solar filters can be bought for these devices as optional accessories and such filters are ALWAYS placed in front of the objective lens. A solar filter is never to be attached to the telescope eyepiece!

Before you select such a filter for photography be sure you know how that filter will reveal the Sun. Depending on the filter your sun images may appear blue, green, orange, yellow, or white.

An adjunct to this is viewing the partial or annular eclipse using a digital camera attached to the back of a telescope, where a solar filter has been attached to the front of the telescope.  Photography, without a filter, of a very low elevation sun (near or at sunset) can be relatively safe for quick glances (less than ½ s) or by looking at the LCD imaging display/screen on the camera (not through an optical finder).  However, if the sun is higher up, a nonfiltered optic can heat up and be damaged and even shatter.  If at that moment you are looking through the optics, you can permanently burn your retina resulting in partial or total blindness!

solar eclipse viewing safety

Looking at the partial eclipse on a camera screen at our Panama eclipse expedition

f. mylar or thermal blanket (which is folded in such a way that the overall image of the sun is not very bright). This medium is poor for photography although some specially made mylar filters can be used for this purpose.  Keep the foil is flat as possible. If the image of the Sun appears too bright, do not use it.

annular eclipse in Iceland, solar eclipse viewing safety

At the annular eclipse in Iceland H. Bruenstein photographed two locals using thermal blanket and drinking beer during the eclipse.

g. projection also includes looking at the ground for crescent images projected through certain types of leaf patterns on trees (not during the total phase of a total solar eclipse)

leaf patterns, crescents, solar eclipse viewing safety

Hand held binocular projection on a white surface

h. projection may also include interlacing fingers and looking at the ground as small out of focus crescent suns are projected (not during the total phase of a total solar eclipse)

i. Baader solar film. This is an ideal product developed for the solar eclipse of 1999 in Europe that has received rave reviews.

j. Sun funnel. This is a projection device that can be constructed and attached to a telescope eyepiece.

sun funnel, solar eclipse viewing safety

A ‘sun funnel’

For those interested in more serious photos or videos, this can be accomplished with a digital camera/telephoto combination of 600mm fl or longer or a digital camera back attached to a high quality apochromatic refractor (for example) or off-the-shelf camcorders.  Again, you must have proper ND5 filtration in front of any camera lens during the entire portion of the annular eclipse and during the partial phases of a total solar eclipse.  Remember that it is only safe to view the totally eclipsed sun without a filter during the short time period identified by our tour escort. Prior to the expedition we provide a photo guide to help you determine the proper exposures.

j. SunSpotter

This can be a rather bulky device to transport but is excellent for showing people the progress of a sun eclipse.

2008 china, sun spotter, solar eclipse viewing safety

During our 2008 solar eclipse expedition to China a local policeman looked at the Sun projection during partial phase from a Sunspotter.

k. Television/internet

By far the safest method (and least direct) is to look at the eclipse on television or by live streaming on the internet. This technique certainly protects viewers eyes but eliminates all enjoyment of the grand spectacle that can be a solar eclipse.

It was cloudy during our trip to Algiers, Algeria on October 3, 2005 but I was able to take this photo of the partial phase on local television.

While this does not involve observing the Sun directly or indirectly you may want to consider determining how dark the eclipse is during totality. This is merely a subjective way that a person can gauge darkness. It is best used at total solar eclipses only, by the same person and over a period of years.

A heavily used ‘eye chart’ that is a copy of a copy. It was used by the same person (Beverly Heebner) in 1994 and 1999. 

2. UNSAFE METHODS to view the sun

solar eclipse viewing safety

Paul D. Maley providing a briefing on unsafe methods which are just as critical as knowing how to safely watch the eclipse.

The following methods you must avoid since they pose a significant hazard to your eyes or to those of someone who might wander up to your instrument.  Some of these methods may appear safe at first use but they are not!

a. direct viewing of the sun with binoculars or telescope or any devices with lenses that do not have a neutral density 5 filter IN FRONT of the optics. Remember that if your telescope has a finder scope, it must either have a filter or be covered when not in supervised use.

b. direct viewing of the sun through a CD or DVD

c. looking at the reflected image of the sun in a pail of water, mirror or other reflecting medium

solar eclipse through bowl of water, solar eclipse viewing safety

Looking at the sun in a bowl of water was done centuries ago and some people unfortunately still do that today.

d. direct viewing of the sun with any type of sunglasses or polarizing glasses

e. attaching a screw-in solar filter to the end of a telescope eyepiece, then looking at the sun with the telescope. These are sometimes called solar eyepieces or sun filters and may be in the box when you buy certain inexpensive telescopes.

f. viewing with special “eclipse glasses” that have cuts or pinholes through which sunlight can pass

g. use of x-ray film (exposed or otherwise)

h. prolonged viewing of the sun without proper filters through cloud. If thick clouds are present, only quick glances (less than ½ s) are safe.

i. direct viewing of the sun through cloth mesh (as was reported in Ghana in 2006)

j. smoked glass

k. use of color or black and white film (exposed or otherwise).  The example below shows what should NOT be done. At our international venues we attempt to provide safe observing instructions to local people whenever possible.

exposed color film negative, solar eclipse viewing safety

A young boy is photographed using exposed color film negative to view the partially eclipsed sun in January 2006. This was from our successful eclipse expedition to Gulu, Uganda.

l. Other things to avoid include placing objects in front of your eyes such as a giant pizza. This ad appeared in 1997.

avoid, solar eclipse viewing safety

This ad for “Little Caeser’s Pizza” appeared in USA Today.